Mughal Emperor Babur (Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad) – Biography

Babur, originally named as Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad was born on 15th February 1483 in Fergana (Uzbekistan). He was the founder of Mughal Empire(Mughal Dynasty) in India He was a battling adventurer, a precise soldier, and a poetBabur was a fifth-generation descendant of Timur and 14th generation of Genhis  Khan(Changez Khan). He was inspired for Timur(Taimur-ae-Lung) for conquering India who invaded in Asia in 1398. Though he was considered as Mughal but he got all his support from Turkians. His father ʿUmar Shaykh Mīrzā, ruled a small state of Fergana in  Hind Kush mountain range.

Early Years of Babur

In Fergana at his early age, Babur took over his father’s principality in 1494. In 1504 he conquered Kabul and Ghazni. His father always tried to recapture Samarkand, the former capital of Timur. between 1494-1504 Babur fought many times to recover Samarkand and occupied it two times in 1497 and 1501 But in 1501 Babar was defeated by  Muḥammad Shaybānī Khan at Sar-e-pol and lost Samarkand and his empire of Fergana. He continued fighting for Samarkand. At last, when he was unsuccessful during 1511-12 he deviated his mind towards other regions mainly Sindh and India and successfully captured Kandahar (In Afghanistan).In 1519 when India was dominated by Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, Babur made his first raid in India through Punjab. At that time Delhi Sultanate was thrashed into pieces of dirty politics and quarrels, so it was easy for Babar to overthrow the Lodhi throne at that time. So he Mounted a big army there and with the help of Ibrahim Lodhi’s uncle, Alam Khan and Dawlat Khan, Babur made his fifth and successful attempt on the throne.

Invasion of Babur in India

Babur fought Ibrahim in 1525 at Panipat with a small army of just 10,000 soldiers over 100000 of Ibrahim’s army men. He was a clever and tactical person his sense of using his small army in a distributed manner was his strength. Also, he had new artilleries from Turks which Ibrahim’s army was unaware. Ibrahim  Lodhi was killed in that battle due to lack of tactics over Babur and he took over Delhi Sultanate and reached Agra on May 4. The first thing he did there was setting up a garden Ram Bagh near Yamuna Bank. Babar, yet have to encounter several Afghans who were acquiring important towns of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, who were supported by the Sultan of Bengal in the east and the Rajputs mainly in Rajasthan. Under Rana Sanga the king of Mewar, Rajputs threatened Babar acquire northern India. Bābur divided the unconquered provinces to his trustable personals and started a continuous expedition against Rana Sanga on March 1527 he defeated Rana Sanga at Khanwa, near Fatehpur Sikri, once again by his clever tactics of using his army and drastic positioning of troops. Babur then started his campaigns towards the Rajputs of Chanderi. He had to fight Afghans turning from the east too. He fought with the joint forces of Sultan of Bengal and Afghans, near Varanasi. Babur won the battles but his diminishing health made him withdraw his expeditions. In December 1530, Babur died Near Lahore.

 Personal Life And Legacy

Babur was followed by his son Humayun and then his grandson Akbar. Despite being a skilled warrior he was also a gifted Turki poet, as well as a lover of nature and constructed many gardens wherever he invaded and complemented beautiful gestures by holding amiable parties. Finally, his whole story was inked in the Babur-nāmeh, which became a major renowned autobiography. It was translated from Turkish to Persian During Akbar’s reign in 1589 and later in English as, which were published in 1921 -1922 AD.

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