Mughal Empire (Mughal Saltnat) was the kingdom or territory in India which was established in 1526. Roots of this empire were from Central Asia (Mongol Chagatai) and culture was Indo Persian. Mughal empire was the second largest (Four Million Square Kilometre) empire in India after the Maurya Empire (Five Million Square Kilometre). Mughal India became the world’s largest economy (24.4% of world GDP) around the 17th century. The last golden age of India and Islamic Gunpowder Empire is considered in Mughal Empire. Babur victory over Ibrahim Lodi (last ruler of Delhi Sultanate) in First Battle of Panipat dated as the beginning of the Mughal Empire.
History Of Mughal Empire
BABUR (1526-1530 AD)
Birth: February 1483
Father: Umer Sekh Mirza
Mother: Kutlug Nigar
- Babur was the Founder of Mughal Empire.
- He adopted the Title of BADSHAH in 1507 AD.
- In First Battle of Panipat Babur used Tuglma War Strategy and Artillery against Ibrahim Lodi.
- Ustad Ali and Mustafa was the two famous shooter of Babur.
- Title of KALANDAR was given to him for his generosity.
- Adopted the title of GAZI after the battle of KHANVA.
- He wrote his autobiography BABURNAMA (Tujuk-e-Baburi) in Turkish Langauge.
Death: 6 December 1530 AD in Agra.
- He was first buried in Agra, later buried in Kabul.
Tomb: Kabul (Pakistan)
BATTLES FOUGHT BY BABUR
BATTLES YEAR BETWEEN RESULT
FIRST BATTLE OF PANIPAT 21 APRIL 1526 AD IBRAHIM LODI AND BABUR BABUR WON
BATTLE OF KHANVA 17 MARCH 1527 AD RANA SANGA AND BABUR BABUR WON
BATTLE OF CHANDERI 29 JANUARY 1528 AD MEDNI ROY AND BABUR BABUR WON
BATTLE OF GHAGRA 6 MAY 1529 AD AFGHANS AND BABUR BABUR WON
Birth: 29 December 1530 AD
Mother: Maham Begum
- In 1553 AD Humayun established a new city named Dinpanah.
- Passed 15 years in exile
- Again In 1555 AD, Humayun defeated the emperor of Punjab and regained India.
- Gulbadan Begum ( sister of Humayun) wrote Humayun Nama ( biography of Humayun).
Death: 1 January 1556 AD
IMPORTANT BATTLES OF HUMAYUN
|BATTLE OF CHAUSA||25 JUNE 1539||SHERSAHA SURI AND HUMAYUN||SHERSAHA SURI WON|
|BATTLE OF BILGRAM||17 MAY 1540||SHERSAHA SURI AND HUMAYAUN||SHERSAHA SURI WON|
|BATTLE OF SARHIND||1555||HUMAYUN AND SIKANDAR||HUMAYUN WON|
Birth: 15 October 1542
Mother: Hamida Banu Begum
- Coronated at the age of 14 on 14 February 155.
- Adopted the Title of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar Badsahi.
- Abolished Jajiya Tax in 1564 AD
- Mansabadari system was the key feature of the governance system.
- Akbar established Fatehpursikri in 1571 AD and constructed Buland Darwaza in 1572 AD after victory over Gujrat.
- Akbar shifted his capital from Agra to Fatehpur Sikri
- Built Hall Of Prayer(Ibadatekhana) in 1575.
- Navratan in Akbar’s Court were as follows: 1. Abul Fazal, 2. Tansen, 3. Birbal, 4. Faizi, 5. Todermal, 6. Man Singh, 7. Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana, 8. Fakir Ajio Din, 9. Mulla Do Pyaza.
- Abul Fazal wrote Akbar Nama.
Death:16 October 1605
Tomb: Sikandara ( Agra)
BATTLES OF AKBAR
|SECOND BATTLE OF PANIPAT||5 NOVEMBER 1556 AD||AKBAR AND HEMU||AKBAR WON|
|BATTLE OF HALDI GHATI||18 JUNE 1576||AKBAR AND MAHRANA PRATAP||AKBAR WON|
Birth: 30 August 1569 AD
Place: Fatehpur Sikri
- Killed Fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev in Prison.
- Established Chain of Truth ( Nyay Ki Janjeer ) for real justice.
- Captain Hawkins (First British), Sir Tomas Row, William Finch, Edward Teri visited his court.
- Married Mehr-Un-Nisa in 1611 AD and gave her title of Nurjahan.
- He wrote his autobiography Tujuk-E-Jahangiri.
- Jahangir had a deep interest in Art and Architecture.
Death: 28 October 1627
Tomb: Sahadra ( Pakistan)
SAHAJANHA/KHURAM ( 1627-1657 AD)
Birth: 5 January 1592
- Built Tajmahal in memory of her beloved queen Mumtaj Mahal.
- Sahajanha shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi in 1638 AD and constructed a new city Shahjahanabad there.
- He constructed(Pearl Mosque) and Jama Masjid ( Great Mosque) in Agra.
- Shahjahan also built Red Fort in Delhi and another Jama Masjid there.
- In 1657 AD due to spread rumors of the death of Sahjanha, led war of succession between his four sons.
- Sahajanha’s Son Aurangzeb declared himself Emperor in 1658 AD and confined him to Agra.
Death: 22 January 1666 AD
AURANGZEB (1658- 1707 AD)
Birth: 24 October 1618 AD
Mother: Mumtaj Mehal
- Aurangzeb became emperor on 31 July 1658 AD after defeating his brothers in the war of succession.
- He killed Ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Teg Bahadur in 1675 AD.
- Built Bibi Ka Maqbra in 1679 AD at Aurangabad ( Maharastra) and Moti Masjid ( Pearl Mosque) in Delhi.
- Conquered Bijapur in 1685 AD and Golakund in 1687 AD.
- Aurangzeb reimposed Jajiy Tax in 1679 AD
- He believed in Sunni Religion and he was called a Zinda Peer.
Death: 20 February 1707 AD
Tomb: Khuldabad (Maharastra)
BAHADUR SHAH II(ZAFAR)( 1837 – 1857 AD)
Birth: 24 October 1775
Father: Akbar Shah II
Mother: Lal Bai
- Bahadur Shah Zafar or Bahadur Shah II was the last Mughal Emperor of India and he ruled for twenty years.
- He played an important role in Revolt of 1857 and fought for India’s Independence from British Rule.
Death: 7 November 1872
Mughal Empire: Economy
The Indian economy was vast and wealthy under the Mughal Empire. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of India in 1600 was approximate at about 22.4% of the world economy during Mughal Era, it was the second largest economy in the world after Ming China but bigger than European economy. The GDP of Mughals had increased to 24.4% of the world economy by 1700; India was the leader in manufacturing, producing about 25% of the world’s trade output until the 18th century in the world. Mughals build a large road system and created a uniform currency. Mughal Empire had a huge road network, which was important for economic infrastructure, which was built by a public service branch or department. The department was set up by the empire to construct and maintain road linking between cities and towns across the empire.