Humayun was the second ruler of Mughal Dynasty in the Indian subcontinent mainly Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India. He was the son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty. After the decline of Babur, he became the emperor of the Mughal kingdom at the age of 23. At the time of taking over the throne, he was inexperienced and his half-brother Kamran Mirza who ruled over Kabul and Lahore gave him a bitter rivalry. Even though being a brave soul and an adventurous emperor, he lost several provinces to his rivals over the years he took over the Mughal throne. However, being the son of Babur he also never accepted defeat so easily and afterward he successfully won back his provinces within a few years. Having many rivals mainly his own brothers, Bahadur Shah and Sher Sah Suri many years of his reign were spent in defending provinces from his rivals, and he was made to seek refuge in Persia for some time. After the death of his rivals when he returned to his empire as an undisputed Mughal Emperor, he started consolidating his empire for his upcoming generations. He initiated on several campaigns to expand the Mughal empire and till the time of his death, the Mughal Empire grew over thousands of kilometers.
Upbringing Of Humayun
Humayun was born to Babur with his wife Maham Begum on 17 March 1508, in Kabul, (present-day Afghanistan . Despite Humayun Babur had many descendants and later on they all become each other’s rivals. He received an upbringing typical for princes. He mastered Turki, Arabic, and Persian and had a great interest in astrology, mathematics, and philosophy. He had gone through typical military training and at the age of 20, he was appointed the governor of Badakhshan. In the Battle of Panipat(1526) and Battle of Khanwa(1527), he proved his bravery as a young governor. His father Babur closely inspected his military training and trained as a great warrior and administrator.
Humayun was dominated by his rivals during the initial years of his reign. Sultan Bahadur attacked Humayun’s provinces many times, but he acted wisely and attacked back upon Bahadur to capture Mandu and Champaner.he forced Bahadur to escape from India and finally, Bahadur died in 1537. At that time Sher Shah Suri was gaining his power in Bihar and Bengal and was emerging as a rival for humayun. Though he insured his territories from Sher Shah but he was not able to do that for so long. Finally in 1539 in the Battle of Chausa Sher Shah Suri defeated Mughals and Humayun was forced to move towards the west region. Again in 1510 in the battle of Kanauj Sher Shah defeated Humayun and made him flee from India and move to Persia. From getting support from Persian emperor Tahmasp he again attacked back and recaptured Kandahar and Kabul. In 1545 with the death of Sher Shah Suri, he got an opportunity to regain this throne. Under the leadership of Bairam Khan a great military genius, he regained his throne on 23 July 1555.
Personal Life of Humayun
Humayun had several wives and mistresses, mainly
- Hamida Banu Begum
- MahChuchak Begum
- Bibi Gunwar Begum
- ShahamAghacha, and Maywa Jan Aghacha.
He had many children but Akbar was the main descendant who ruled and spanned the Mughal Empire. He was titled as ’Insān-i-Kamil’ among all of Mughals because of his peaceful nature and patience. Humayun’s tomb is an example of beautiful Mughal architecture located in Nizamuddin East, New Delhi.